과학문화교육의 연구와 저술
Self-support of Japanese astronomy in Edo Period-Seki Takakazu and Shibukawa Harumi
- Seki Takakazu (關孝和) and Shibukawa Harumi (澁川春海) -
In pre-Edo period of Japan, five systems of Chinese calendar were officially used, namely the Yuanjia-li, the Yifeng-li, the Dayan-li, the Wuji-li and the Xuanming-li. Among them, the last Chinese calendrical system used in pre-Edo period of Japan was the Xuanming-li, which was used from AD 862 to 1684 in Japan. By the beginning of the Edo period (AD 1603 - 1867), some Japanese scholars noticed the inaccuracy of the old Xuanming-li, and tried to study the more accurate Shoushi-li, an excellent Chinese traditional calendrical system which was made by Guo Shoujing etc. at the time of the Yuan dynasty of China, and was used in China from AD 1281 (but has never been used officially in Japan). Seki Takakazu (ca.AD 1640 - 1708), a celebrated mathematician, and Shibukawa Harumi (AD 1639 - 1715), an able practical astronomer, also studied the Shoushi-li. Shibukawa Harumi, as a practical astronomer, found that even the Shoushi-li was not accurate enough, and tried to use new data including fragmental information of Western astronomy. In AD 1683, Shibukawa proposed his own new calendrical system, which was named Jokyo-reki in the next year, and was officially used in Japan from AD 1685. It was the first theory of calendrical system produced in Japan. Seki Takakazu and Shibukawa Harumi were contemporaneous, and both of them made great contributions to the development of Japanese mathematics and/or astronomy.
I would like to discuss the difference between Seki Takakazu and Shibukawa Harumi in the study of astronomy.
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3-5-26, Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0012, Japan