외국 과학문화교육의 면모
보고서 "Learning Science in Informal Environments"
- People, Places, and Pursuits -
Philip Bell, Bruce Lewenstein, Andrew W. Shouse, and Michael A. Feder, Editors,
Committee on Learning Science in Informal Envisronments, National Research Council, 2009
Part 1. Learning Science in Informal Environments
2 Theoretical perspectives
Part2. Venues and Configurations
4 Everday Settings and Family Activities
5 Science Learning in Designed Settings
6 Programs for Young and Old
Part3. Cross-Cutting Features
7 Diversity and Equity
Part4. Conclusions, Recommendations, and Future Directions
9 Conclusions and Recommendations
A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff
B Some Technical Considerations in Assessment
미국을 중심으로 '비정규과학교육(Informal science education)에 대한 노력의 역사적 개관
(50 Years of Major Events in Informal Science Learning with primary focus on the United States)
1957 National Science Foundation (NSF) conducts first studies of public knowledge of science; repeated in 1979 and thereafter biennially.
1958 NSF creates program on Public Understanding of Science?(continues to 1981).
1961 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) begins newsletter on Understanding, Llinking science journalists, Hollywood film and television producers, mass communication researchers, adult educators, and museum staff (continues to 1967).
1962 Founding of Pacific Science Center in Seattle.
1968 Founding of the Lawrence Hall of Science at the University of California, Berkeley.
1969 Founding of The Exploratorium in San Francisco.
1973 AAAS creates a (short-lived) NSF-funded National Center for Public Understanding of Science, linking radio, television, schools, youth activities, and science kits.
1983 NSF recreates Public Understanding of Science Program as Informal Science Education.
1985 Royal Society-odmer Report on public understanding of science (UK) leads to sustained interest in research on related topics (Ziman,
1991; Irwin and Wynne, 1996).
1988 Founding of Visitor Studies Association.
1989 A grant awarded to the Association for Science-Technology Centers by the Institute for Museum and Library Services results in a series of articles called 밯hat Research Says About Learning Science in Museums? in the association newsletter and two subsequent volumes with the same title.
1990 First chair in the public understanding of science is established, at Imperial College, London.
1991 An International Journal of Science Education special issue on informal science learning is published.
1992 The journal Public Understanding of Science is established.
1994 A conference funded by NSF results in publication of Public Institutions for Personal Learning: Establishing a Research Agenda (Falk and Dierking, 1995).
1996 The first major informal learning research grant is awarded to the Museum Learning Collaborative, funded by a consortium of federal agencies.
1997 A Science Education special issue on informal science learning is published.
1998 NSF-funded conference results in publication of Free-Choice Science Education: How We Learn Science Outside of School (Falk, 2001).
2000 NSF-funded conference results in publication of Perspectives on Object- Centered Learning in Museums (Paris, 2002).
2001 Founding of the Center for Informal Learning and Schools.
2002 A Journal of Research on Science Teaching special issue on informal science learning is published.
2002 Free-choice/informal learning is added as a strand of graduate study in science and mathematics education in the College of Science at Oregon State University.
2004 A conference called “In Principle, In Practice: A Learning Innovation Initiative” resulted in a preconference supplemental issue of Science education, a postconference online publication called Insights, and a postconference edited book on informal science learning.
2004 Founding of the Learning in Informal and Formal Environments Center.
2005 Informalscience http://www.informalscience.org) is launched to share
evaluation and research on informal science learning environments.
2008 NSF publishes Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects.
(위 내용은 보고서의 일부 입니다. 전문은 첨부에 있습니다.)
2009Informal Science Education Report.pdf