과학교육학 학위논문 요약과 종합해설
DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB BASED ENVIRONMENT FOR TASK CENTERED LEARNING OF RELATIVE MOTION
(Doctoral Dissertation Abstract)
The purpose of this research is to develop a Web based science learning environment. To accomplish this purpose, developmental goals were specified, learning strategy was devised, structure and functions of the Web based learning environment were designed and developed, and the instructional effect was evaluated.
Developmental goals were specified by analyzing two researchers' reflections on their experience in Web based science learning environment. Their reflections were classified into four categories: content, learner, instructor, and system. The goals were (1) to provide differentiated learning tasks, (2) to encourage learners to express their conceptions, (3) to assist instructors to observe and guide students, and (4) to make integrated structure and functions in the Web based learning environment.
Task centered learning strategy was devised to achieve the goals. Elements of two learning strategies were adopted: "problems from everyday contexts" and "self-directed learning in group" of the problem based learning, and "learning units" and "individualized feedback" of the mastery learning. In the Web based learning environment, learning tasks are given. Learners are permitted to attempt the task if they pass diagnostic test. They make use of learning materials and discuss with others to fulfill the task. After fulfilling the task, they report about it. If the report is accepted by instructor, they are given a task fulfillment certificate. If not, they get feedback and revise the report.
Structure and functions of the Web based learning environment were designed and developed for task centered learning. In the process, the developer considered content, learner, instructor, and system simultaneously and comprehensively. Four "rooms" (Library, Laboratory, Conference Room, and Workshop) were developed. They are integrated that participants' interactions are arranged systematically. Learners' activities are recorded automatically so that instructors can easily observe them. Functions such as diagnosis pass approval, task fulfillment certification, and privilege to write on learners' private board were developed to help instructors to guide learners.
After the development, instructional effect of the Web based learning environment was evaluated. Students' utterances in the Web based learning environment were classified and compared with known preconceptions. Diagnostic test, discussion in the Conference Room, and task fulfillment report encouraged the students to express their conceptions. The Relativity of Motion Questionnaire was used to examine the students' conceptions before and after their participation. Students of lower score made conceptual changes, but larger sample is needed to confirm this finding. Students and experts evaluated the Web based learning environment according to a criteria. Students appreciated the Web based learning environment as being interesting and helpful, and asked more learning materials and privileges. Experts appreciated it as being effective in instructor's observation and guidance, and suggested improvement to be practical in the current school situation.
The Web based learning environment was developed adopting task centered learning strategy. It was effective in students' expression of conceptions and conceptual changes, and in instructors' observation and guidance.
Seoul National University, 2001
Advisor: Sung-Jae Pak