국제적 과학교육학술논문 요약과 외국 과학교육 및 국제화
Science Education for the Students with a Visual Impairment
1. General arrangements in teaching science for students with a visual impairment.
2. Arranging the teaching content and the study material for learning through experiencing.
(a) Some arrangements for achieving the same objectives without using vision.
(b) Changing and amending unsuitable study materials for students with a visual impairment.
(i) Usage of big and strong objects.
(ii) Limiting the space/area.
(iii) Setting guide lines.
(c) Developing some original contents for students with a visual impairment.
3. Building a teaching plan on the characteristics of the visual impairments.
(a) Understanding the essence of the content.
(b) Letting students to "do".
(c) Keeping some spare time.
(d) Including the systematic skill development in the teaching plan.
(e) Selecting the teaching content and focusing on the important operation.
4. Some considerations in experiment/observation
(a) For spatial recognition:
(b) For time recognition: understanding the schedule.
1) Talk about the whole procedure before the actual activity starts.
2) Let the students involve in an activity from the start till the end.
3) If the activity requires some collaboration of a few different tasks, let the students exchange the tasks so that they can develop the whole picture of the activity.
4) Explain about the whole procedure as well as the other people's tasks, and give a cue upon starting an activity by saying "Let's begin!".
(c) The active inquiry using the touch, and the verbal feedbacks by the teacher.
5. Significant aspects of oral communication in teaching the visually impaired.
1) Provide an overview in the beginning of the talk.
2) Explain logically, and be aware of the structure behind the logic.
3) Make the usage and the pronunciation of the defined terms (technical term) as clear as possible, so that the students can share the same images from the same term.
(1) let the student develop an image of the term from the empirical experiences, then
(2) let them articulate and share the image.
4) Provide the information on the notional system (which symbols or characters are being used).
6. Instruction on note taking.
Taking notes fast and reading one's own notes are difficult tasks for both blind students and low vision students. Therefore, the students need to make the decision on what to write down. A good note taker knows that he/she should write down 1)only the necessary points, 2)after understanding the points, 3)precisely and carefully, instead of trying to write down everything.
In teaching Chinese characters for students with low vision for example, the teacher must make sure that the students understood the structure of the letter (the combination of the parts). It is most effective to instruct the students to write precisely and carefully, and keep their work load minimum. As for calculation, the teacher should instruct them to write only the crucial expression precisely and carefully, so that the students do not make mistakes while writing. For instance, when solving the formula stated below, students with a visual impairmentshould write down only what appears in the left column, but should skip writing down the rest (shown in the right column).
the formula to write down
the formula to skip writing
The teacher needs to instruct the students in the beginning on what formulas are to be written and what are all to be skipped and during the course the teacher should provide enough time for the students to decide. This is one example of what the teacher should instructthe students, to overcome the difficulties based on the visual impairment, which I believe is a big part of "teaching" in the education for the visually impaired students.
Science education for the students with a visual impairment.hwp
Institute of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan