"과학문화교육"

2005-02-25 (Vol 2, No 2)

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과학교육학 학위논문 요약과 종합해설

놀이기반탐구(PBI) 상황에서 물리탐구

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요약

근래의 과학계는 과학과 기술 뿐만 아니라 그것들과 사회 사이에도 긴밀한 관계가 있어서 떼어 놓고 생각할 수 없다는 인식아래 과학을 별개로 가르칠 것이 아니라 기술과 사회를 연계하여 가르쳐야 한다는 움직임 곧 STS 운동이 주류를 이루고 있다. STS 교육 운동의 목표는, ‘과학적 소양을 갖춘 일반인을 양성하는 것이다(Showalter, 1978). 따라서, STS적 교육의 소재도 당연히 학습자의 관련성(relevance)을 중심으로 학생들의 실생활과 관련되는 내용을 다룰 수 있어야 할 것이다. 학습자의 생활 관련성 소재 중 한 가지가 놀이이다. 즉, 일상생활 중 놀이 활동은 청소년기에 매우 중요한 잇슈가 될 수 있다. 그런데, 학자들에 의하면, 놀이가 창의성 및 문제해결을 위한 방법을 제시할 수 있다는 이론과 청소년기의 사고 특징인 가설-연역적 사고가 가능하다는 점에 착안하면, 놀이를 소재로 하는 탐구를 통하여 흥미와 동기유발은 물론이고 개념형성면에서도 의미 있는 결과를 얻을 수 있을 것으로 생각되었다.

따라서, 본 연구의 연구문제는, 1) PBI학습 상황에서 활용 가능한 물리탐구학습 자료를 개발하고, 2) PBI학습 상황에서 수업에 활용할 수 있는 ‘놀이기반 물리탐구모형’을 개발하며, 3) 개발한 PBI학습 상황에서 활용할 수 있는 물리탐구학습 자료를 ‘놀이기반 물리탐구모형’을 사용하여 현장에 적용할 때의 학습 효과를 살펴본다는 것이다.

먼저, 청소년과 관련성을 가지는 놀이를 중심으로 놀이를 전통놀이, 도전놀이, 놀이공원의 놀이로 범주화하고 이를 중심으로 하는 학습 활동을 ‘놀이기반 탐구학습’ 즉, ‘PBI(Play- Based Inquiry)학습’이라 정의하였다. 그리고, PBI학습 자료를 개발한 다음 적용을 위하여 교수체제개발 일반모형과 PSSC, SATIS의 교수체제개발 절차를 고찰하고, ACTIVE PHYSICS 프로그램의 교수체제를 참고하여 놀이기반 탐구학습 자료를 학습지 형태로 개발한 후 pilot test, 현장 교사 및 과학교육 전문가의 자문을 얻어 16종의 PBI 프로그램을 개발하였다. 또, 이 중 일부를 적용하기 위하여 ’놀이기반 물리탐구모형‘을 전문가의 자문을 바탕으로 개발하였다. 적용 효과를 살펴보기 위해 인문계 고등학교 K고 130명과 중학교 영재교육원 소속 60명을 대상으로 PBI학습을 위한 놀이 상황에서 탐구활동을 하고 학습 효과를 살펴보았다.

적용실험 결과에 의하면,
1) PBI학습효과는 비교반에 비해 동기, 태도 면에서 유의미한 차이가 있었으며, 개념면에서도 부분적으로 효과적임이 드러났다.
2) 놀이 투입 시기, 즉 선 놀이 후 학습과 선 학습 후 놀이 유형 중 개념학습효과, 태도 및 동기 학습 효과는 놀이의 유형에 따라 다름을 알 수 있었다.
3)PBI학습 상황에서 놀이학습은 형식적 조작기에 이르지 못한 학습자에게도 효과적으로 적용할 수 있으며,
4) PBI학습 효과는 학교 성적과 무관하게 성적 하위 그룹 학생들에게도 적용하면 효과를 거둘 수 있을 것이라는 시사점을 얻었다.

The Development of Physics Inquiry Learning Materials and Application in the Play-Based Inquiry Context.

Abstract
In this study, the play-one of many relevant objects to the student life-is introduced as a method to embody the effective inquiry learning in the flow of STS(Science, Technology and Society) educational movement for the purpose of making the scientific literal person.

The play activity is one of the most important issues in their everyday lives in later childhood and adolescence. This study is based on with the following assumptions; First, the play theory can provide the method for the problem solving and creativity with the learner especially in the period of adolescence, second, adolescents can make hypothetico-deductive reasoning, and third, therefore it is possible to get significant results in making scientific concepts as well as in giving interests and motivation induction through the inquiry with play.

Therefore, the topics of this study are;
1) to develope the physics inquiry learning materials in PBI(Play-Based Inquiry) contexts.
2) to develop the play-based physics inquiry model being able to be used in physics classes in PBI contexts.
3) to investigate the learning effects when the physics inquiry learning materials are adopted to the classroom activity using the play-based physics inquiry model.
More specific topics are;
a) to find out which group is more effective, the group in PBI context or that of traditional learning method.
b) to find out which group is more effective, LP(Learning-Play) group or PL(Play-Learning) group to know the period to commit the play.
c) to investigate what relation the change of conceptual achievements in PBI contexts has to logical thinking abilities.
d) to investigate what relation the change of conceptual achievements in PBI contexts has to achievements of physics.

To begin with, the plays relevant to the adolescence life are categorized with three parts, i.e., traditional play, competitive play, amusement park play, and then PBI is defined as Play-Based Inquiry, and the learning in such contexts is defined as PBIL.

And after using the model of instruction system design and the development procedure of science education program, i.e., PSSC, SATIS, learning materials have been developed through the developing process and 16 programs have been completed through the pilot tests and consultation of the teachers.
16 developed materials are 6 programs for traditional play, 6 programs for competitive play, and 4 programs for amusement park play.

And also the play-based physics inquiry learning model is developed to adopt the program to the physics class through investigating the existing models and consultations of experts. So two models have been developed, the one is for the traditional plays or competitive plays and the other is for the amusement park plays. The rough inquiry procedure of model is as follows;

formulating a problem through challenge play ->generating a hypothesis ->play inquiry ->analysis of data and test ->organizing the concepts and adopting

In this model, each important step has a motivation strategy, i.e., attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction; ARCS motivation strategy of Keller.
To investigate the learning effects, the subjects are 130 students of K-high school and the 60 gifted students of middle school belonging to gifted-educational institution of Pusan Metropolitan City of Education and the data have been collected from the subjects. The 130 students of K-high school are divided into two groups. The experimental group of 64 students learned the concept of vertical projectile motion with air resistance with Jegi play, one of the Korean traditional plays, and learned the frictional force with competitive play climbing the slope. The other group of 66 students, controlled group, learned the same concepts of physics through traditional learning method.
Then experimental group of 60 students, who learned the physics concepts in the context of amusement park play, is again divided into two groups, LP Group and PL Group to investigate the effects of period to commit the play. The former is for early-learning and late-play, the latter is for early-play and late-learning.

The results of this study are as follows;
1. The Play-Based Inquiry Learning has more effective than the traditional teaching method in the aspect of students' learning motivation and attitude.
2. Depending on the types of plays, the effects of the two group, LP and PL, vary in the aspects of concept learning effect, scientific attitude, learning motivation.
3. This program can be adopted to the students who do not reach the formative operation step.
4. In gaining the concept, PBI learning program can be adopted to even the students who have poor school grade irrespective of their school record.

Key words: play, PBI, Play-Based Inquiry, Play-Based Inquiry Learning, PBIL, inquiry model

Jo, O-Gun
Department of Physics, The Graduate School of
Pusan National University, Doctoral Thesis Abstract, 2004

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부산대학교 물리학과 물리교육 전공 이학박사 학위 논문 요약 2004
지도 교수: 김영민

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